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关于break动词短语的学习

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Hi. Welcome to engVid. I'm Adam. In today's video we're going to look at phrasal verbs.

欢迎来到英格威学习网。我是亚当。在今天的视频中我们将学习一些动词短语。
Well, one phrasal verb in particular using the verb "break". So, again, just to refresh our memories:
有一个短语动词特别使用了动词"break"。我们再来回顾一下:
A phrasal verb is a verb and a preposition that when put together sometimes have completely different meanings than the two words, and sometimes they have multiple meanings.
短语动词由一个动词和一个介词构成,它们放在一起有时会有完全不同的意思,有时它们有多种意思。
So we're going to start with: "break". First of all: "break" means to basically make somebody whole not whole.
我们将从"break"开始。首先,"break"的意思是使完整的人变得不完整。
So you can break your bone, means it's, like, snap in half, or you break your glass.
所以你可以说骨折,意思就是断成两半,或者说打碎玻璃。
You drop the glass on the floor and it breaks, it comes into pieces, so that's what "break" means.
你把玻璃掉在地板上,它碎了。它摔成了碎片,所以这就是打碎的意思。
And most of these words you can a little bit guess their meanings, some of them you will not guess at all.
大多数单词你都能猜出它们的意思,有些你根本猜不到。
We're going to start with "break out". Okay, "break out" has a few meanings, and we have the noun "breakout". Okay?
我们就从"break out"开始。"break out"有几个意思,还有名词"breakout"。
"To break out", so the first meaning we're going to look at is a rash, r-a-s-h. Actually I'll write this down for you.
"To break out",第一个意思我们来看疹子。我来写下来吧。
If you break out in a rash, it basically means you ate something that you're allergic to.
如果你出疹子了,意思就是你吃了一些你过敏的东西。
So, some people, for example, are allergic to chocolate.
比如,有些人对巧克力过敏。
So they eat a piece of chocolate, or... By accident and suddenly on their skin they see little, red dots everywhere. Okay?
所以他们偶然吃了一块巧克力,突然他们发现自己的皮肤上都是红点。
That is called a rash. It's itchy, it's not very pretty, but it's an allergic reaction. So you break out in a rash, usually. Okay?
这就是疹子。它很痒,并不美观。但是它是一种过敏反应。所以你就出了疹子。
That's one. The same thing, on the same idea, when we talk about a disease.
这是一个意思。当我们谈论一种疾病时是同样的道理。
So, a disease or a virus, for example, starts somewhere and then it just breaks out. It spreads. So: "to break out" means to spread.
所以,一种疾病或者病毒,在某个地方出现,然后它就爆发。它会传播。"to break out"的意思就是传播。
So, some diseases, like for example, SARS, I don't know if everybody remembers that disease, it started in one little place,
某些疾病,比如非典,我不知道是否每个人都记得那个疾病,它开始于一个小地方,
and then it suddenly broke out and travelled all over the world, and it was an epidemic, and everybody was really scared.
然后它突然爆发,传播到全世界,它是一种传染性疾病,每个人都非常害怕。
Another meaning of "break out" and similar to the idea of spread, when we talk about artists, especially like actors or musicians,
"break out"的另外一个意思和传播的意思类似,当我们谈论艺术家时,尤其是演员或者音乐家,
they break out, it means they suddenly become very popular or very famous.
他们爆红了,意思是他们突然变得非常受欢迎或者有名。
So, some singers or some bands, they make an album, for example. And, you know, the sales are so-so and not that many people hear about them.
比如,一些歌手和乐队,他们制作了一张专辑。销量一般,它并没有很多人去听。
Then their next album, so-so, maybe a little bit better, maybe not.
然后他们的下一张专辑,一般般,可能好一点,也可能不好。
Their third album suddenly they break out, suddenly everybody knows who they are, they're very famous,
他们的第三张专辑突然爆发,突然所有人都知道他们是谁,他们非常有名,
everybody's buying their album, so we also call this their "breakout album".
每个人都在买他们的专辑,所以我们也称它为“爆发专辑”。
That's the album that spread their name and made them famous. Okay? And lastly: "to break out" means to escape.
这就是传播了他们的名字和使他们出名的专辑。最后,"to break out"意思是逃跑。
So if you break out of jail, that means you escape from jail.
如果你越狱了,意思就是你从监狱里逃跑了。
So a little bit like, you know, you have... You're handcuffed or you have that ball with a chain on your leg, so you break it and you get out, so you escape.
所以这有点像,你戴着手铐,或者你的腿上有一个带着链子的球,你打破它,你出了监狱,你逃跑了。
You break out of jail. So that's "break out". "Break in", a few meanings. One, and again, "break-in" is a noun with the hyphen.
你从监狱里逃跑了。这就是"break out"的意思。“Break in"有几个意思。"break-in"是一个带有连字符的名词。
"To break in" basically means to enter illegally and using force.
"To break in"意思就是非法进入和使用武力。
So, if someone has a break in in their house, means that the burglar broke the lock or the window, or whatever and came in and stole their things.
如果某人的家里被人非法闯入,意思就是窃贼撬了锁或者打破了玻璃,或者通过其他方式闯了进来,偷了他们的东西。
So: "to break in" means to enter forcefully. Usually we use it with "break into", you break into someone's house, you break into the office, etc.
"To break in"的意思是强行进入。通常我们使用"break into"表达,你闯进了某人的家里,你闯进了办公室,等等。
But "break into" has another meaning, we'll get to that. So that's "break in".
但是"break into"还有另外一个意思,我们等会儿再说。这就是"break in"。
Another meaning of "break in": "to break in" means to make something basically more suited to your style, to your comfort. Okay?
"break in"另外一个意思是:"to break in"意思是使某物更加适应你的风格,使你更加舒适。
So think about jeans. When you buy your first pair of jeans or when you buy a new pair of jeans, I should say, they're a little bit stiff. You know?
所以想想牛仔裤。当你买第一条牛仔裤或者买一条新牛仔裤时,我应该说,它们有一点紧。
They're not that comfortable, you're not sitting too well in them, so you do a few squats. Okay?
穿着这条牛仔裤不是那么舒服,你穿着这条牛仔裤坐着不太舒服,你做了几个深蹲。
Or you do some stretches, or you put it in the laundry, and after a few washes, it becomes a little bit softer, a little bit more flexible, so now your jeans are broken in.
或者你做了一些拉伸,或者你把它放进洗衣机里,在洗过几次后,它变得有一点软,更加有弹性了,所以你的牛仔裤穿的更舒服了。
You've broken in your jeans. If you take a baseball glove-okay?-this is a very common thing that you need to break in.
你的牛仔裤更适合你了。如果你拿了一个棒球手套,它是你需要适应的很常见的东西。
When you buy a new baseball glove it's very stiff, so if somebody throws you the ball, you can't catch it because you can't close the glove.
当你刚买一个新棒球手套时,它很硬。所以如果某人朝你扔了棒球,你是接不住的,因为你合不上手套。
So, what do you do? You take some oil, you put it inside the glove, take a baseball, put it in, close it tight, tie it with some rope,
这时你要怎么做?你要取来一些油,把它放进手套里,拿一个棒球,把它放到里面,然后紧紧地合上手套,用一些绳子把它绑住。
put it on the street, drive over it with your car, slip it under your bed and sleep on it for a few days.
把它放在街上,开着你的车轧过它,把它放在你的床下,在它上面睡几天。
After a few days it's nice, and soft, and very flexible and you can catch the ball. So, that's how you break in a baseball glove.
几天后它就会变好,变软,很有弹性,你就可以接住球了。这就是你如何适应手套的方式。
You can also break in a person in the same way. Somebody new comes to your office to work in your company, but, you know,
你也可以以某种方式适应一个人。一位新同事来到你的公司工作。但是,你知道,
they don't really know everything about the office, they don't know the company culture, they don't really know anybody, they don't have friends.
他们并不了解办公室的一切事情,他们不知道公司的文化,他们不太认识所有人,他们没有朋友。
So you help break them in, you show them how everything works, you introduce them to other people in the company,
所以你帮助他们融入,你向他们展示事情运作的方式,你把他们介绍给公司的其他人。
and soon enough they're comfortable, they're working like everybody else.
很快他们就感到舒适了,他们开始和大家一样工作。
"Break up", I think everybody knows this one. You break up with your boyfriend, you break up with your girlfriend. Okay?
"Break up",我绝的大家都知道这个。你和你的男友分手了,你和女朋友分手了。
And you go through a "break-up", basically means you go through the process of separating, splitting up. Okay?
你经历了一次分手,意思就是你经历了分离、分开的过程。

关于break动词短语的学习.jpg

"Break up" can also mean to separate into smaller pieces. So if you think about a big company, a conglomerate... This is a good word to know.

"Break up" 还有一个意思是分成更小的部分。如果你想到一个大公司,一个联合企业...这是一个需要知道的好词。
A "conglomerate" is a huge company that actually owns a lot of smaller companies. Okay?
“联合企业”是指拥有很多小公司的大公司。好吧?
In Asia you have a lot of these conglomerates, they're huge. But let's say you want...
在亚洲,有很多这样的企业集团,它们规模庞大。但是假设你想要...
You're the owner of one of these conglomerates and you want to split it up, you want to make some money, or you don't want all the work, you want to relax a little bit,
你是这些企业集团的所有者,你想把它拆开,你想赚钱,或者你不想做所有的工作,你想放松一下,
so you break up the company into pieces, and then sell each one individually, make tons of money.
所以你把公司分成几部分,然后分别卖掉每一部分,赚很多钱。
You can break up anything into smaller pieces that are easier to handle. Okay, sometimes we talk about TV.
你可以把任何东西分成更小的更容易处理的部分。好吧,有时我们会谈论电视。
You're watching TV or even on Skype if you're on the internet and the connection is not good, like somebody freezes and whatever, so they're not...
你在看电视或者是上网开Skype视频通话,连接不太好,比如某个人卡住了,不动了...
It's not a very good connection, so you can say to somebody: "Oh, you're breaking up."
连接不太好,你可以跟那人说:“你要断线了。”
The connection is breaking, it's not smooth and flowing. Okay? So that's another very common use of "break up".
连接要断,连线不顺畅。这是"break up"的另外一个常用用法。
"Break off" basically means to separate a piece from something else, to make not whole.
"Break off"意思是把某个东西从另外一个东西上分离开来,使之不再是一个整体。
So if there's a tree and it's hanging over your driveway, and it's, like...
如果有一棵树,它的枝叶垂到了你的车道上,就像...
The leaves are falling on your car, you go to the tree, you grab the branch and you just break it off, and it's no more branch, no more leaves, no more problem. Okay?
叶子落在你的车上,你走到树那里,你抓住树枝,把它切断,然后就没有树枝挡路了,没有更多树叶了,没有什么问题了。
You can also break off, means like interrupt, especially when we're talking about speech.
break off也有打断的意思,尤其是我们在讨论演讲的时候。
So I'm talking to somebody and then I hear a loud crash, so I... In the middle of the speech I break off the speech to go deal with that. Right?
我正在和别人说话,然后我听到一声巨响,所以我...在演讲进行到一半时,我中断演讲去处理那个问题。对吧?
So you interrupt something, especially speech when we're using that. Now, I want to be careful with "for".
所以你打断了一些事情,尤其是当我们使用它的时候。现在,我想要小心"for"的用法。
Technically, when you "break for lunch", for example, or "brake for a child on the street", the "for" goes with the object, not with the "break".
严格来说,比如,当你去吃午饭,或者在街上为一个小孩刹车,"for"是和后面的宾语在一起的,不是和"break"一起。
It's not a phrasal verb. So: "break for lunch" means take a break. Why? For lunch, because you're going to go have lunch.
它不是一个动词短语。"break for lunch"意味着你要休息一下。为什么,因为你要去吃午饭。
So be careful. This is not a phrasal verb, so I put it in brackets. Okay? Let's go to this side: "break down", a few meanings here as well.
所以小心一点。这不是一个动词短语,所以我把它放进括号里。来看一下"break down",它也有几个意思。
If something breaks down, it means it stops working. So when you...
如果一个东西发生故障了,意思是它停止工作了。所以当你...
Especially when we're talking about machines, a machine breaks down or your car broke down, it means it stopped working, there was a problem with it, you probably need to fix it.
尤其是我们在谈论机器的时候,机器发生故障或者你的汽车发生故障,意思是停止工作了。它出现了一个问题,你可能需要解决这个问题。
When you want to analyze something... Let's say you have a problem and it's a pretty big problem and you can't deal with it because...
当你想要分析一件事情时...比如你有一个问题,问题相当大,你解决不了它,因为...
Because it's too big, so you break it down. You separate it into smaller pieces, and then you analyze each piece by itself, so that way you can fix the whole problem.
因为问题太大了,你需要拆解它。你把它分解成小问题,然后你分析每个小问题,这样你就能解决整个大问题。
This is what scientists do. They have a problem, they break it down into individual parts, they assess each one, they fix the problem altogether.
这就是科学家做的事情。他们遇到一个问题,他们把问题分解成各个部分,评估每个部分,然后一起解决问题。
Now, when we talk about a "breakdown", again, it's the situation of something not working.
现在我们来谈论一下"breakdown",它是一个某个东西不再工作的情形。
The most common use is when we talk about, like, a mental breakdown.
最常见的用法是当我们谈论,比如精神崩溃。
If someone has a mental breakdown, it means their brain, not stopped working because, you know,
如果某人出现了精神崩溃,意思是他们的大脑不再工作,因为你知道,
they're still alive, they can still do things, but emotionally they just can't do anything;
他们仍然活着,他们仍然可以做事情,但是情感上来说,他们就是不能做任何事情。
they can't go to work, they can't talk to people, they just don't know what to do with their lives, they're very distressed, very depressed, etc.
他们不能工作,他们不能和人说话,他们不知道该怎样继续生活,他们很痛苦,很抑郁,等等。
so they have a mental breakdown. Maybe they go to a doctor, they fix it, they get back on their feet and go on.
所以他们出现了精神崩溃。或许他们去看医生,他们解决了这个问题,他们站了起来,继续生活。
So: "break into" I mentioned, you can break into something, means enter it forcefully, but you can also break into an industry.
看看我刚才提到的"break into",你可以闯进某个地方,意思是强行进入,但是你也可以闯进一个行业。
Okay, so let's say I'm a photographer and I want to make money...
比如说我是一个摄影师,我想要赚钱...
Make a career as a photographer, so I take a lot of pictures, but nobody's really interested, nobody's really buying.
开启一个作为摄影师的生涯,所以我会拍很多照片,但是没人感兴趣,没人愿意购买。
So finally I go to one magazine and I show my portfolio, and they say: "Wow, this is really good stuff.
最终我去了一家杂志社,我展示了我的作品集,他们说:“哇,这真的是好照片。
Okay, come work for us." So now I've basically entered this industry, the photography industry, I've broken in, I have my start, and now I can build my career from that point on.
来为我们工作吧。”所以现在我基本上是进入了这个行业,摄影行业,我闯了进来,有了一个开始,我可以从这时起开启我的职业生涯。
So it's still enter, but it's not a physical place and it's not forcibly. Okay?
所以这也是进入,但是这不是进入一个场所,也不是强行进入。
It's an industry, it's an idea. "Break away", so "break away" means to separate from a group. Okay?
这是一个行业,它是一个想法。"Break away"意思是脱离一个群体。
So, in sports especially you see this, you have a lot of, like, basketball players, everybody is in this area trying to get the ball, and then one guy steals the ball and he runs.
在体育中你尤其会看到这个,比如有很多篮球运动员,每个人都在这个区域抢球,然后有个人断了球,开始狂奔。
And he's over here, and the rest of the players are all over there.
他在这边,其他的运动员都在那边。
So he's on a breakaway, and then he goes and slam dunks, does whatever he wants, because nobody's around him.
他由守转攻,然后去扣篮,做他想做的事情,因为没有人在他边上。
He has separated himself from the group, he has broken away. This is also what happens in politics, especially when you talk about "breakaway" as an adjective. Okay?
他脱离了群体,他发动了快攻。它也用在政治上,尤其是尤其是当你把"breakaway"作为形容词的时候。
So, the sports player goes on a "breakaway", but a political group, we talk about a "breakaway party".
所以运动员会突然进攻,但是在政治群体中,我们谈论的是“分裂党”。
So let's say you have... Okay, let's look at America, for example.
比如说,让我们看一下美国。
In the United States you have the Republican Party, and then you have the breakaway party called the Tea Party.
在美国,有共和党,还有一个分裂党叫茶党。
So, the Tea Party used to be... Are people from the Republicans who decided to go their own way and separate from the main Republican group. Okay?
茶党过去是...来自共和党的一些人,他们想走自己的路,从共和党分离出来。
So that's "break away". And "breakeven". "Breakeven" basically means not gain... Not gain, not loss.
这就是"break away"。再来看"breakeven",它的意思是不赔不赚,没有赚也没有赔。
So, when you reach a "breakeven point" it means you're at neutral.
所以当你到了一个“平均转效点”,意思就是你处于中间。
If you invest some money, you invested $10,000 and after a year, you know, you're in stocks and your stocks went down, your stocks went up, but after a year you're at breakeven.
如果你投资了一些钱,你投资了1万美元,一年后,你投资了股票,你的股票下跌了,你的股票上涨了,但一年后你就盈亏平衡了。
That means you didn't make any money, you didn't lose any money, although you technically did because of inflation and all that stuff, but that's a whole other lesson.
这意味着你没有赚到任何钱,你也没有损失任何钱,虽然从技术上讲,这是由于通胀等因素造成的,但这是另外一回事了。
So: "breakeven". Now, if you have any questions about any of these phrasal verbs-I hope they were pretty clear-please go to www.engvid.com, there's a forum, you can ask me questions there.
这就是"breakeven"。如果你有任何关于这些动词短语的问题-我希望我讲的很清楚-请登录www.engvid.com,那里有个论坛,你可以在那里问我问题。
There's also a quiz where you can practice using all of these in sentences.
还有一个小测验,你可以练习在句子中使用这些词。
And I hope you like this lesson. Please like it for me and subscribe to my channel, and come back for more great videos. See you.
希望你喜欢这个课程。请为我点赞,订阅我的频道,回来看更多超棒的视频。回见。

重点单词   查看全部解释    
reaction [ri'ækʃən]

想一想再看

n. 反应,反作用力,化学反应

联想记忆
escape [is'keip]

想一想再看

v. 逃跑,逃脱,避开
n. 逃跑,逃脱,(逃

 
handle ['hændl]

想一想再看

n. 柄,把手
v. 买卖,处理,操作,驾驭

联想记忆
assess [ə'ses]

想一想再看

v. 估定,评定

 
burglar ['bə:glə]

想一想再看

n. 窃贼

联想记忆
neutral ['nju:trəl]

想一想再看

adj. 中立的,中性的
n. 中立者,空挡的

 
laundry ['lɔ:ndri]

想一想再看

n. 洗衣店,要洗的衣服,洗衣

联想记忆
separated ['sepəreitid]

想一想再看

adj. 分居;分开的;不在一起生活的 v. 分开;隔开

 
split [split]

想一想再看

n. 劈开,裂片,裂口
adj. 分散的

 
flowing ['fləuiŋ]

想一想再看

adj. 流动的;平滑的;上涨的 v. 流动;起源;上涨

 
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