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关于夏洛克·福尔摩斯的十大误解(上)

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We have all heard of Sherlock Holmes, and in the eyes of most of the world he is the greatest fictional detective of all time. His popularity is so great that there is an entire society devoted to Sherlock Holmes fan fiction and sometimes to pretending he is real, called the Baker Street Irregulars. It is inevitable that with such popularity there will be many mistaken notions about the character. Its mythology becomes distorted and things that are not at all true become commonly repeated as fact. Below are ten things most people think about Sherlock Holmes, that are completely wrong.

我们都听说过夏洛克·福尔摩斯,在世界上大多数人眼中他是有史以来最厉害的小说版侦探。他深受欢迎,甚至有一整个协会都致力于夏洛克福尔摩斯粉丝小说的创作,有时候还假装他真实存在,称之为贝克街小分队。如此流行的人物,人们有所误解也在所难免。他的传奇被扭曲,许多不尽不实的事情却成为了人们口口相传的事实。以下是大多数人对于福尔摩斯的十大误解。

10.Innocent People

10.清白的人
Misconception: He wouldn't treat an innocent person badly just to solve a case.
误解: 他不会为了破案而伤害无辜的人们。

清白的人

Many people see Sherlock Holmes as a white knight of the detective world: he solves cases using only the power of his mind and innocent people never get hurt in the process. He is universally beloved as the greatest fictional detective in the world, but he had more of a dark side than just his drug use and other eccentric habits. Sherlock Holmes was not at all averse to doing whatever it took to win a case, and he often played the game for the games own sake. In one story The Adventure of Charles Augustus Milverton, he becomes engaged to a housemaid to get closer to a villain he is trying to expose. After he solves the case, he simply leaves the woman, presumably upsetting her greatly. He never makes any effort to explain the situation to her and we never hear about it again. He also employed a small group of street urchins to do his dirty work, which he affectionately called "The Baker Street Irregulars." We see them in The Sign of the Four, A Study in Scarlet, and The Adventure of the Crooked Man.

许多人认为福尔摩斯是侦探世界里的白马骑士:在破案时他只需要运用他的智慧,无辜的人也不会受伤。他深受人们喜爱,是世界上最伟大的小说侦探,但是除了吸毒和其他怪癖之外,他还有一些阴暗面。他为了破案不折手段,常常玩花样。在《查尔斯·奥古斯塔斯·米尔沃顿》这个故事中,为了揭发一个恶棍,他接近他的女仆并与之订婚。破案之后,他就离开了那个女人,让她伤透了心。他也不曾向她做出任何解释,而此事很多人都蒙在鼓里。而且,他还雇佣一些街童做非法勾当,美其名曰"贝克街小分队"。我们可以在《四签名》、《血字的研究》和《驼背人》中看见他们的身影。

9.Socially Advanced

9.思想开明
Misconception: Sherlock Holmes was a socially-forward thinker
误解: 福尔摩斯是一个思想开明的人。

思想开明

In The Adventure of the Three Gables Sherlock Holmes engages in some very cruel and racist conversations with black people. He basically calls a black boxer stupid based on his skin color and then goes so far as to make fun of the size of his lips. An excerpt from Holmes encounter with Steve Dixie, a black boxer: "‘That's my name, Masser Holmes, and you'll get put through it for sure if you give me any lip.' ‘It is certainly the last thing you need,' said Holmes, staring at our visitor's hideous mouth." After The boxer left Sherlock Holmes comments: "I am glad you were not forced to break his woolly head, Watson. I observed your maneuvers with the poker. But he is really rather a harmless fellow, a great muscular, foolish, blustering baby, and easily cowed, as you have seen." There are other times where more commonplace comments are made about people from Africa in general, that are somewhat disparaging. There are a couple of important things to note, however. When the stories were written, these attitudes were fairly commonplace, it doesn't excuse them, but it doesn't make the character much different from anyone else in England at the time. It is also interesting to note that many scholars believe The Adventure of the Three Gables, which had the most obvious racism, was actually a forgery and not written by Arthur Conan Doyle at all. This would not be particularly surprising as Sherlock Holmes fan fiction has been popular for a long time.

在《三角墙山庄》中,福尔摩斯和一名黑人的谈话非常残忍并带有种族歧视。他只是基于他的肤色就把黑人拳击手叫做笨蛋,而且还取笑了他的嘴唇大小。摘录中,福尔摩斯遇见了一名名叫史蒂夫·迪克西(Steve Dixie)的黑人拳击手。"我就是福尔摩斯,如果你说些好话我或许会放过你""那你倒用不着",福尔摩斯使劲盯着他奇丑无比的嘴巴说。拳击手离开后,福尔摩斯评价道:"华生,幸亏你没有敲破他那结实的脑袋。我看见你拿拨火棒的动作了。其实他倒是一个不妨事的,别看浑身是肌肉,倒是个愚蠢的、放空炮的小孩子,很容易把他镇住,就象刚才那样。"在其他时候他对非洲人的评价普遍如此,还带有一些侮辱性的言辞。但是,我们也要注意到一些重要的事情。写故事的时候,这种态度非常普遍,我不是在找借口,但人物的态度和当时其他英格兰的人们一样,没有什么不同。很有意思的是,许多学者认为《三角墙山庄》中种族歧视最为明显,事实上是赝品,根本不是出自柯南·道尔之手。福尔摩斯同人小说一直都很流行,出现这种事情也不足为奇。

8.Withholding Information

8.隐瞒信息
Misconception: Sherlock Holmes withholds information from the police.
误解:福尔摩斯对警察隐瞒了信息。

隐瞒信息

In the recent Sherlock Holmes movies, he is pictured taking evidence from crime scenes and hiding it from the police on multiple occasions. This allows him to stay several steps ahead at all times and ensures he solves the case before they do. The only problem here is that this is totally the opposite of how he behaved in the books. Sherlock Holmes would always leave enough evidence for the police to figure out the same things he did if they were so inclined as we see in The Adventure of the Devils Foot. And he would often share information with them if he thought they were pursuing a useless line of inquiry, which we can see in The Adventure of Wisteria Lodge. Sherlock Holmes stayed ahead of the police because he was simply better at deduction than they were; it does a disservice to his character to suggest that he would ever misappropriate evidence.

在最近的一些福尔摩斯电影中,他被塑造为从犯罪现场带走证物多次对警察隐瞒信息的人物形象。这样的话,他可以一直比警察快一步,在警察之前破案。唯一的问题是他的这些行为与书中所写完全相反。在《魔鬼之足》中,我们可以看到警方如果配合他的话,福尔摩斯总是会给警方留下线索,让他们推理出自己知道的一切。在《藤荘》中,福尔摩斯如果认为警方追踪的是一条无用的线索,也会与警方分享信息。他总是比警方快一步仅仅是因为他比他们更加擅长推理;他盗用证据只会贬低他的人物形象。

7.Best Friend

7.最好的朋友
Misconception: Holmes trusts his best friend Dr. Watson.
误解:福尔摩斯信任他最好的朋友华生。

最好的朋友

Sherlock Holmes's best friend is Dr. John Watson, and he relies on him as his biographer and companion, especially on very dangerous missions. The pair are incredibly close and remain good friends throughout most of their lives. Holmes even comments that he would be "lost without his Boswell," in reference to the famous 18th century biographer of Samuel Johnson. However, while Holmes may have trusted his best friend to defend him in a scrape, and trusted his medical knowledge, he does not truly trust Dr. Watson. In The Hound of the Baskervilles, Holmes sends Dr. Watson to keep an eye on the situation at Baskerville hall, and then sneaks out to the moor to keep an eye on the situation himself rather than trusting his friends account. And to make matters worse he does not even tell Dr. Watson of his arrival. Also, in The Adventure of the Dying Detective, he tricks his best friend into thinking he is dying of a deadly disease because he does not believe that Dr. Watson would be able to keep the secret that he was faking it if he told him. While he claims respect for Dr. Watson's medical skills, it's a poor show that he doesn't think his friend could go along with his game.

福尔摩斯最好的朋友就是约翰·华生医生。尤其是在执行极其危险的任务时,华生作为他的伙伴和传记作家,是他最依赖的人。两人亲密无间,一生都维持着挚友的关系。福尔摩斯甚至评价说:"没有他的博斯韦尔,他的人生就迷失了。"(参考18世纪著名传记作家塞缪尔·约翰逊的话,博斯韦尔是为密友撰写传记的人)。然而,或许福尔摩斯相信华生会在他处于困境时维护他,信任他的医药知识,但他不是真的信任华生医生。在《巴斯克维尔的猎犬》中,他派华生去监视巴斯克维尔庄园里的一举一动,然后自己偷偷溜去沼泽暗中观察情形,这无疑是不信任华生。更糟糕的是,他甚至没有告诉华生他的行踪。而且在《临终的侦探》中,他欺骗华生,让他认为他病入膏肓而死去。因为他不相信如果他告诉华生真相,华生会隐瞒住他假死的秘密。虽然他敬佩华生的医术,但这也是掩饰自己不认为华生可以和他一起玩侦探游戏的无聊作秀罢了。

6.Eccentric Manners

6.古怪的穿着
Misconception: Holmes dresses in an eccentric manner and is often dirty or unkempt.
误解:福尔摩斯穿着古怪,蓬乱,肮脏不堪。

古怪的穿着

Not all movies are guilty of this particular offense, but the horrible monstrosity that was the recent two part movie series with Robert Downey Jr is a huge offender. Robert Downey Jr portrays Holmes as dressing in an extremely eccentric manner, including ill fitting clothes, strange ensembles that don't make sense and as having a general air of bad hygiene. However, Sherlock Holmes is actually described in The Hound of the Baskervilles as having a cat like approach to cleanliness. He dressed in very traditional, conservative clothes for his time and was always impeccably neat. In fact, in The Hound of the Baskervilles, Sherlock Holmes is out on the moor investigating a case in secret, living in an old shack, and still arranges to have fresh linen and other luxuries brought to him so that he can remain neat and clean.

不是所有的电影都要承担这样的罪名,但是可怕的是,由美国演员小罗伯特·道尼主演的两部福尔摩斯的电影却是重犯。小罗伯特·道尼将福尔摩斯刻画为穿着古怪(穿着不合身、古怪的让人费解的衣着搭配)和卫生习惯差的人。然而,事实上福尔摩斯在《巴斯克维尔的猎犬》中被描绘得像猫一样有洁癖。他穿着传统保守的衣服而且总是一尘不染。在《巴斯克维尔的猎犬》中,福尔摩斯前往沼泽调查一宗神秘案件,他还是带了一些干净的亚麻布和其他一些奢侈品,让自己保持整洁和干净。

翻译:高陈影 编辑:陈艳冲 来源:前十网

重点单词   查看全部解释    
traditional [trə'diʃənəl]

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adj. 传统的

 
engaged [in'geidʒd]

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adj. 忙碌的,使用中的,订婚了的

 
distorted [dis'tɔ:tid]

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adj. 歪曲的;受到曲解的 v. 扭曲(distort

 
defend [di'fend]

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v. 防护,辩护,防守

 
commonplace ['kɔmənpleis]

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adj. 平凡的,陈腐的
n. 常事,老生常谈

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villain ['vilən]

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n. 坏人,恶根 n. 罪犯

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cleanliness ['klenlinis]

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n. 清洁

 
offense [ə'fens]

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n. 过错,冒犯,触怒,犯规,犯罪,进攻

 
forgery ['fɔ:dʒəri]

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n. 伪造,伪造罪,伪造物

 
expose [ik'spəuz]

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vt. 揭露,使暴露,使曝光,使面临

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